Dr. Julie L. Booth received her doctoral degree in psychology in 2005 from Carnegie Mellon University and trained as a post-doctoral fellow at the NSF-funded Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, where she conducted research on students’ learning in real-world classrooms. Dr. Booth has received funding from both IES and NSF as primary investigator or co-primary investigator on nine federal grants, including her current IES grant on the connections between fraction knowledge and algebra and the MathByExample project managed by the Strategic Education Research Partnership. She is published in top journals for both psychology and education fields, including Child Development, Learning and Instruction, and Science. Her research interests lie in translating between cognitive science/cognitive development and education by finding ways to bring laboratory tested cognitive principles to real-world classrooms, identifying prerequisite skills and knowledge necessary for learning, and examining individual differences in the effectiveness of instructional techniques based on learner characteristics. She recently won the Linking Research and Practice Outstanding Publication Award from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Courses Taught




EDUC 9987

Teaching Apprenticeship


Selected Publications

  • Barbieri, C.A., Young, L.K., Newton, K.J., & Booth, J.L. (2021). Predicting Middle School Profiles of Algebra Performance Using Fraction Knowledge. Child Dev, 92(5), pp. 1984-2005. United States. doi: 10.1111/cdev.13568

  • Barbieri, C.A., Booth, J.L., Begolli, K.N., & McCann, N. (2021). The effect of worked examples on student learning and error anticipation in algebra. Instructional Science, 49(4), pp. 419-439. doi: 10.1007/s11251-021-09545-6

  • Begolli, K.N., Dai, T., McGinn, K.M., & Booth, J.L. (2021). Could probability be out of proportion? Self-explanation and example-based practice help students with lower proportional reasoning skills learn probability. Instructional Science, 49(4), pp. 441-473. doi: 10.1007/s11251-021-09550-9

  • Newton, K.J., Lange, K., & Booth, J.L. (2020). Mathematical Flexibility: Aspects of a Continuum and the Role of Prior Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Education, 88(4), pp. 503-515. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2019.1586629

  • Barbieri, C.A. & Booth, J.L. (2020). Mistakes on display: Incorrect examples refine equation solving and algebraic feature knowledge. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34(4), pp. 862-878. doi: 10.1002/acp.3663

  • Begolli, K.N., Booth, J.L., Holmes, C.A., & Newcombe, N.S. (2020). How many apples make a quarter? The challenge of discrete proportional formats. J Exp Child Psychol, 192, p. 104774. United States. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104774

  • Barbieri, C.A., Miller-Cotto, D., & Booth, J.L. (2019). Lessening the Load of Misconceptions: Design-Based Principles for Algebra Learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(3), pp. 381-417. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2019.1573428

  • Young, L.K. & Booth, J.L. (2019). Don't Eliminate the Negative: Influences of Negative Number Magnitude Knowledge on Algebra Performance and Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi: 10.1037/edu0000371

  • Newcombe, N.S., Booth, J.L., & Gunderson, E.A. (2019). Spatial skills, reasoning, and mathematics. In The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education (pp. 100-123). doi: 10.1017/9781108235631.006

  • Booth, J.L., Newton, K.J., Pendergast, L.H., & Barbieri, C. (2018). Opening the door to algebra: The role of fraction knowledge in algebra learning. Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS, 3(2018-June), pp. 1581-1582.

  • Hallinen, N.R. & Booth, J.L. (2018). Don’t just do it, explain it: A 5th grade worked examples curriculum supports transfer to algebra content. Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS, 3(2018-June), pp. 1647-1648.

  • McGinn, K.M. & Booth, J.L. (2018). Precise mathematics communication: The use of formal and informal language. Bordon, Revista De Pedagogia, 70(3), pp. 165-184. doi: 10.13042/Bordon.2018.62138

  • Paré-Blagoev, E.J. & Booth, J. (2017). Examples at the boundaries: Using a research practice partnership to improve teaching tools in Algebra. In Research in Mind, Brain, and Education (pp. 208-233).

  • O'Shea, A., Booth, J.L., Barbieri, C., McGinn, K.M., Young, L.K., & Oyer, M.H. (2017). Algebra performance and motivation differences for students with learning disabilities and students of varying achievement levels. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, pp. 80-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.03.003

  • Zahner, W., Dai, T., Cromley, J.G., Wills, T.W., Booth, J.L., Shipley, T.F., & Stepnowski, W. (2017). Coordinating multiple representations of polynomials: What do patterns in students' solution strategies reveal? Learning and Instruction, 49, pp. 131-141. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.01.007

  • Cromley, J.G., Booth, J.L., Wills, T.W., Chang, B.L., Tran, N., Madeja, M., Shipley, T.F., & Zahner, W. (2017). Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 19(1), pp. 55-68. doi: 10.1080/10986065.2017.1258614

  • Booth, J.L. (2017). Translating knowledge of children’s thinking to improve education. In Cognitive Development from a Strategy Perspective: A Festschrift for Robert Siegler (pp. 155-168). doi: 10.4324/9781315200446

  • Barbieri, C. & Booth, J.L. (2016). Support for struggling students in algebra: Contributions of incorrect worked examples. Learning and Individual Differences, 48, pp. 36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.04.001

  • Booth, J.L., McGinn, K.M., Barbieri, C., & Young, L.K. (2016). Misconceptions and learning algebra. In And the Rest is Just Algebra (pp. 63-78). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45053-7_4

  • Young, L.K. & Booth, J.L. (2015). Student Magnitude Knowledge of Negative Numbers. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 1(1), pp. 38-55. doi: 10.5964/jnc.v1i1.7

  • Booth, J.L., Oyer, M.H., Paré-Blagoev, E.J., Elliot, A.J., Barbieri, C., Augustine, A., & Koedinger, K.R. (2015). Learning Algebra by Example in Real-World Classrooms. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(4), pp. 530-551. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2015.1055636

  • Booth, J.L., McGinn, K.M., Young, L.K., & Barbieri, C. (2015). Simple Practice Doesn’t Always Make Perfect: Evidence From the Worked Example Effect., pp. 24-32. doi: 10.1177/2372732215601691

  • McGinn, K.M., Lange, K.E., & Booth, J.L. (2015). A Worked Example for Creating Worked Examples. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 21(1), pp. 26-33. Retrieved from

  • Booth, J.L., Cooper, L.A., Donovan, M.S., Huyghe, A., Koedinger, K.R., & Paré-Blagoev, E.J. (2015). Design-Based Research Within the Constraints of Practice: AlgebraByExample. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 20(1-2), pp. 79-100. doi: 10.1080/10824669.2014.986674

  • Thompson, C.A. & Booth, J.L. (2015). Cognitive Development: Mathematics Learning and Instruction. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (pp. 66-75). doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92146-9

  • Lange, K.E., Booth, J.L., & Newton, K.J. (2014). Learning Algebra from Worked Examples. Mathematics Teacher, 107(7), pp. 534-540. Mathematics Teacher. Retrieved from

  • Booth, J.L., Newton, K.J., & Twiss-Garrity, L.K. (2014). The impact of fraction magnitude knowledge on algebra performance and learning. J Exp Child Psychol, 118, pp. 110-118. United States. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.09.001

  • Booth, J.L., Barbieri, C., Eyer, F., & Paré-Blagoev, E.J. (2014). Persistent and pernicious errors in algebraic problem solving. Journal of Problem Solving, 7(1), pp. 10-23. doi: 10.7771/1932-6246.1161

  • Koedinger, K.R., Booth, J.L., & Klahr, D. (2013). Education research. Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science, 342(6161), pp. 935-937. United States. doi: 10.1126/science.1238056

  • Booth, J.L. & Davenport, J.L. (2013). The role of problem representation and feature knowledge in algebraic equation-solving. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 32(3), pp. 415-423. doi: 10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.04.003

  • Booth, J.L., Lange, K.E., Koedinger, K.R., & Newton, K.J. (2013). Using example problems to improve student learning in algebra: Differentiating between correct and incorrect examples. Learning and Instruction, 25, pp. 24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.11.002

  • Booth, J.L., Koedinger, K.R., Newton, K.J., Lange, K.E., & (SREE), S.f.R.o.n.E.E. (2013). Differentiating Instruction: Providing the Right Kinds of Worked Examples for Individual Students. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Retrieved from

  • Booth, J.L., Lange, K.E., Koedinger, K.R., & Newton, K.J. (2013). Using Example Problems to Improve Student Learning in Algebra: Differentiating between Correct and Incorrect Examples. Online Submission. Retrieved from

  • Booth, J.L. & Newton, K.J. (2012). Fractions: Could they really be the gatekeeper's doorman? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37(4), pp. 247-253. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.07.001

  • Booth, J.L. & Koedinger, K.R. (2012). Are diagrams always helpful tools? developmental and individual differences in the effect of presentation format on student problem solving. Br J Educ Psychol, 82(Pt 3), pp. 492-511. England. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02041.x

  • Booth, J.L. & Siegler, R.S. (2008). Numerical magnitude representations influence arithmetic learning. Child Dev, 79(4), pp. 1016-1031. United States. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01173.x

  • Booth, J.L. & Siegler, R.S. (2006). Developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation. Dev Psychol, 42(1), pp. 189-201. United States. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.189

  • Siegler, R.S. & Booth, J.L. (2005). Development of numerical estimation: A review. In The Handbook of Mathematical Cognition (pp. 197-212).

  • Siegler, R.S. & Booth, J.L. (2004). Development of numerical estimation in young children. Child Dev, 75(2), pp. 428-444. United States. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00684.x