Dr. Armando Estrada‘s research expertise centers on the assessment of job attitudes and behaviors; training development and evaluation; and strategic planning and assessment. His research examines factors influencing leadership, teamwork and performance with particular focus on cohesion, readiness, resilience and effectiveness of collectives in civilian and military organizations. He also focuses on factors influencing the diversity, inclusion and engagement with particular focus on women and minorities in civilian and military organizations. His research has been carried out in the United States, Sweden, and Mexico with support from various sponsors to include the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel & Readiness (OUSD P&R); Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity (OUSD-EO); Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS); United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM); Tank and Automotive Command Program Executive Office for Ground Combat Systems (TACOM PEO/GCS); Swedish Department of Defense; Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA); Washington State Board Association Leadership Institute Fellows Program, Clark County Human Resources; and the US Department of the Interior. Dr. Estrada has also worked as editor in chief for Military Psychology and president of the Society for Military Psychology.

Courses Taught




EDUC 9185

Applied Research and Evaluation Internship


EPSY 5551

Introduction to Program Evaluation


EDAD 8636

Research for Change


AOD 2201

Research Methods


AOD 5403

Facilitating Adult Learning


AOD 5534

Group Facilitation and Consultation


Selected Publications

  • Estrada, A.X. (2021). A farewell message from the outgoing editor. Military Psychology, 33(2), pp. 67-71. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2021.1898264

  • Decostanza, A.H., Gamble, K.R., Estrada, A.X., & Orvis, K.L. (2018). Team measurement: Unobtrusive strategies for intelligent tutoring systems. In Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 19 (pp. 101-130). doi: 10.1108/S1534-085620180000019009

  • Estrada, A.X., Severt, J.B., & Jiménez-Rodríguez, M. (2016). Elaborating on the conceptual underpinnings of resilience. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(2), pp. 497-502. doi: 10.1017/iop.2016.46

  • Estrada, A.X. (2015). Psychology’s Contributions to National Defense and National
    SecurityPsychology’s Contributions to National Defense and National
    Security. PsycCRITIQUES, 6060(1414). doi: 10.1037/a0039076

  • Severt, J.B. & Estrada, A.X. (2015). On the function and structure of group cohesion. Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, pp. 3-24. doi: 10.1108/S1534-085620150000017002

  • DiRosa, G.A., Estrada, A.X., & DeCostanza, A.H. (2015). Cohesion with large collectives: A multiteam systems perspective. Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, pp. 25-52. doi: 10.1108/S1534-085620150000017003

  • Estrada, A.X., Vessey, W.B., & Salas, E. (2015). Team Cohesion : Advances in Psychological Theory, Methods and Practice., volume 17. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Retrieved from

  • Bates, M.J., Fallesen, J.J., Huey, W.S., Packard, G.A., Ryan, D.M., Burke, C.S., Smith, D.G., Watola, D.J., Pinder, E.D., Yosick, T.M., Estrada, A.X., Crepeau, L., & Bowles, S.V. (2013). Total Force Fitness in units part 1: military demand-resource model. Mil Med, 178(11), pp. 1164-1182. England. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00519

  • Probst, T.M., Graso, M., Estrada, A.X., & Greer, S. (2013). Consideration of future safety consequences: a new predictor of employee safety. Accid Anal Prev, 55, pp. 124-134. England. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.02.023

  • Estrada, A.X. (2013). Editorial. Military Psychology, 25(1), pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1037/mil0000001

  • Estrada, A.X., Dirosa, G.A., & Decostanza, A.H. (2013). Gays in the U.S. military: reviewing the research and conceptualizing a way forward. J Homosex, 60(2-3), pp. 327-355. United States. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2013.744676

  • Estrada, A.X. (2012). Gay Service Personnel in the U.S. Military: History, Progress, and a Way Forward. In The Oxford Handbook of Military Psychology. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195399325.013.0120

  • Decostanza, A.H., Dirosa, G.A., Rogers, S.E., Slaughter, A.J., & Estrada, A.X. (2012). Researching Teams: Nothing's Going to Change Our World. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(1), pp. 36-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2011.01400.x

  • Probst, T.M., Estrada, A.X., & Brown, J.W. (2012). Harassment, violence, and hate crimes in the workplace. In Diversity Resistance in Organizations (pp. 93-126). doi: 10.4324/9780203809761

  • Estrada, A.X., Olson, K.J., Harbke, C.R., & Berggren, A.W. (2011). Evaluating a brief scale measuring psychological climate for sexual harassment. Military Psychology, 23(4), pp. 410-432. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2011.589353

  • Estrada, A.X., Probst, T.M., Brown, J., & Graso, M. (2011). Evaluating the psychometric and measurement characteristics of a measure of sexual orientation harassment. Military Psychology, 23(2), pp. 220-236. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2011.559394

  • Witkiewitz, K. & Estrada, A.X. (2011). Substance abuse and mental health treatment in the military: Lessons learned and a way forward. Military Psychology, 23(1), pp. 112-123. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2011.548651

  • Probst, T.M. & Estrada, A.X. (2010). Accident under-reporting among employees: testing the moderating influence of psychological safety climate and supervisor enforcement of safety practices. Accid Anal Prev, 42(5), pp. 1438-1444. England. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.06.027

  • Estrada, A.X. (2010). Editorial. Military Psychology, 22(1), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1080/08995600903578356

  • Estrada, A.X. & Berggren, A.W. (2009). Sexual harassment and its impact for women officers and cadets in the swedish armed forces. Military Psychology, 21(2), pp. 162-185. doi: 10.1080/08995600902768727

  • Estrada, A.X. & Laurence, J.H. (2009). Examining the impact of training on the homosexual conduct policy for military personnel. Military Psychology, 21(1), pp. 62-80. doi: 10.1080/08995600802565751

  • Estrada, A.X. (2009). Military Psychology: Editorial. Military Psychology, 21(1), pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1080/08995600802580594

  • Estrada, A.X. & Harbke, C.R. (2008). Gender and ethnic differences in perceptions of equal opportunity climate and job outcomes of US Army Reserve component personnel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(5), pp. 466-478. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.06.005

  • Estrada, A.X., Stetz, M.C., & Harbke, C.R. (2007). Further examination and refinement of the psychometric properties of the MEOCS with data from reserve component personnel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), pp. 137-161. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.05.006

  • Ivarsson, S., Estrada, A.X., & Berggren, A.W. (2005). Understanding men's attitudes toward women in the Swedish armed forces. Military Psychology, 17(4), pp. 269-282. doi: 10.1207/s15327876mp1704_2

  • Estrada, A.X. (2002). A preliminary scale for assessing attitudes toward homosexuals in the military. Psychol Rep, 90(2), pp. 583-592. United States. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2002.90.2.583

  • Estrada, A.X. & Weiss, D.J. (1999). Attitudes of military personnel toward homosexuals. J Homosex, 37(4), pp. 83-97. United States. doi: 10.1300/J082v37n04_05